YouTube is a video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. The service was created by three former PayPalemployees in February 2005. In November 2006, it was bought by Google for US$1.65 billion. YouTube now operates as a Google subsidiary. The site allows users to upload, view, and share videos, and it makes use of Adobe Flash Video and HTML5technology to display a wide variety of user-generated and corporate media video. Available content includes video clips, TV clips,music videos, and other content such as video blogging, short original videos, and educational videos.
Most of the content on YouTube has been uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Vevo, Hulu, and other organizations offer some of their material via YouTube, as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can watch videos, and registered users can upload videos to their channels. Videos considered to contain potentially offensive content are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
According to a story that has often been repeated in the media, Hurley and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos that had been shot at a dinner party at Chen’s apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party “was probably very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story that was very digestible”.
Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson‘s role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, and later from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not easily find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site. Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, and had been influenced by the website Hot or Not.
YouTube began as a venture-funded technology startup, primarily from a $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube’s early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California. The domain name
www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, and the website was developed over the subsequent months.
YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005, six months before the official launch in November 2005. The site grew rapidly, and in July 2006 the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, and that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published bymarket research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010.
YouTube says that 300 hours of new videos are uploaded to the site every minute, three times more than one year earlier and that around three quarters of the material comes from outside the U.S. The site has 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internetin 2000. Alexa ranks YouTube as the third most visited website on the Internet, behind Google and Facebook.
The choice of the name
www.youtube.com led to problems for a similarly named website,
www.utube.com. The site’s owner, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November 2006 after being regularly overloaded by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube has since changed the name of its website to
Google does not provide detailed figures for YouTube’s running costs, and YouTube’s revenues in 2007 were noted as “not material” in a regulatory filing. In June 2008, aForbes magazine article projected the 2008 revenue at $200 million, noting progress in advertising sales. In January 2012, it was estimated that visitors to YouTube spent an average of 15 minutes a day on the site, in contrast to the four or five hours a day spent by a typical U.S. citizen watching television.
YouTube entered into a marketing and advertising partnership with NBC in June 2006. In November 2008, YouTube reached an agreement with MGM, Lions Gate Entertainment, and CBS, allowing the companies to post full-length films and television episodes on the site, accompanied by advertisements in a section for US viewers called “Shows”. The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox, and Disney. In November 2009, YouTube launched a version of “Shows” available to UK viewers, offering around 4,000 full-length shows from more than 60 partners. In January 2010, YouTube introduced an online film rentals service, which is available only to users in the US, Canada and the UK as of 2010. The service offers over 6,000 films.
In March 2010, YouTube began free streaming of certain content, including 60 cricket matches of the Indian Premier League. According to YouTube, this was the first worldwide free online broadcast of a major sporting event.
On March 31, 2010, the YouTube website launched a new design, with the aim of simplifying the interface and increasing the time users spend on the site. Google product manager Shiva Rajaraman commented: “We really felt like we needed to step back and remove the clutter.” In May 2010, it was reported that YouTube was serving more than two billion videos a day, which it described as “nearly double the prime-time audience of all three major US television networks combined”. In May 2011, YouTube reported in its company blog that the site was receiving more than three billion views per day. In January 2012, YouTube stated that the figure had increased to four billion videos streamed per day.
In April 2011, James Zern, a YouTube software engineer, revealed that 30% of videos accounted for 99% of views on the site.
In November 2011, the Google+ social networking site was integrated directly with YouTube and the Chrome web browser, allowing YouTube videos to be viewed from within the Google+ interface. In December 2011, YouTube launched a new version of the site interface, with the video channels displayed in a central column on the home page, similar to the news feeds of social networking sites. At the same time, a new version of the YouTube logo was introduced with a darker shade of red, the first change in design since October 2006.
In May 2013, YouTube launched a pilot program to begin offering some content providers the ability to charge $0.99 per month or more for certain channels, but the vast majority of its videos would remain free to view.
In January 2010, YouTube launched an experimental version of the site that uses the built-in multimedia capabilities of web browsers supporting the HTML5 standard. This allows videos to be viewed without requiring Adobe Flash Player or any other plug-in to be installed. The YouTube site has a page that allows supported browsers to opt into the HTML5 trial. Only browsers that support HTML5 Video using the H.264 or WebM formats can play the videos, and not all videos on the site are available.
YouTube experimented with Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH), which is an adaptive bit-rate HTTP-based streaming solution optimizing the bitrate and quality for the available network. Currently they are using Adobe Dynamic Streaming for Flash.
All YouTube users can upload videos up to 15 minutes each in duration. Users who have a good track record of complying with the site’s Community Guidelines may be offered the ability to upload videos up to 12 hours in length, which requires verifying the account, normally through a mobile phone. When YouTube was launched in 2005, it was possible to upload long videos, but a ten-minute limit was introduced in March 2006 after YouTube found that the majority of videos exceeding this length were unauthorized uploads of television shows and films. The 10-minute limit was increased to 15 minutes in July 2010. If an up-to-date browser version is used, videos greater than 20 GBcan be uploaded.
YouTube accepts videos uploaded in most container formats, including .AVI, .MKV, .MOV, .MP4, DivX, .FLV, and .ogg and .ogv. These include video formats such as MPEG-4,MPEG, VOB, and .WMV. It also supports 3GP, allowing videos to be uploaded from mobile phones. Videos with progressive scanning or interlaced scanning can be uploaded, but for the best video quality, YouTube suggests interlaced videos be deinterlaced before uploading. All the video formats on YouTube use progressive scanning.
Quality and formats
YouTube originally offered videos at only one quality level, displayed at a resolution of 320×240 pixels using the Sorenson Spark codec (a variant of H.263), with mono MP3 audio. In June 2007, YouTube added an option to watch videos in 3GP format on mobile phones. In March 2008, a high quality mode was added, which increased the resolution to 480×360 pixels.
In November 2008, 720p HD support was added. At the time of the 720p launch, the YouTube player was changed from a 4:3 aspect ratio to a widescreen 16:9. With this new feature, YouTube began a switchover to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as its default video compression format. In November 2009, 1080p HD support was added. In July 2010, YouTube announced that it had launched a range of videos in 4K format, which allows a resolution of up to 4096×3072 pixels. YouTube has since lowered the maximum resolution to 3840×2160 pixels, which is twice as many pixels in both directions as 1080p.
In June 2014, YouTube introduced videos playing at 60 frames per second, in order to reproduce video games with a frame rate comparable to high-end graphics cards.The videos play back at a resolution of 720p or higher.
YouTube videos are available in a range of quality levels. The former names of standard quality (SQ), high quality (HQ) and high definition (HD) have been replaced by numerical values representing the vertical resolution of the video. The default video stream is encoded in the VP9 format with stereo Vorbis audio; if VP9/WebM is not supported in the browser/device or the browser’s user agent reports Windows XP, then H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video with stereo AAC audio is used instead.
In a video posted on July 21, 2009, YouTube software engineer Peter Bradshaw announced that YouTube users can now upload 3D videos. The videos can be viewed in several different ways, including the common anaglyph (cyan/red lens) method which utilizes glasses worn by the viewer to achieve the 3D effect. The YouTube Flashplayer can display stereoscopic content interleaved in rows, columns or a checkerboard pattern, side-by-side or anaglyph using a red/cyan, green/magenta or blue/yellow combination. In May 2011, an HTML5 version of the YouTube player began supporting side-by-side 3D footage that is compatible with Nvidia 3D Vision.
YouTube offers users the ability to view its videos on web pages outside their website. Each YouTube video is accompanied by a piece of HTML that can be used to embed it on any page on the Web. This functionality is often used to embed YouTube videos in social networking pages and blogs. Users wishing to post a video discussing, inspired by or related to another user’s video are able to make a “video response”. On August 27, 2013, YouTube announced that it would remove video responses for being an underused feature. Embedding, rating, commenting and response posting can be disabled by the video owner.
YouTube does not usually offer a download link for its videos, and intends for them to be viewed through its website interface. A small number of videos, such as the weekly addresses by President Barack Obama, can be downloaded as MP4 files. Numerous third-party web sites, applications and browser plug-ins allow users to download YouTube videos. In February 2009, YouTube announced a test service, allowing some partners to offer video downloads for free or for a fee paid through Google Checkout. In June 2012, Google sent cease and desist letters threatening legal action against several websites offering online download and conversion of YouTube videos. In response, Zamzarremoved the ability to download YouTube videos from its site. The default settings when uploading a video to YouTube will retain a copyright on the video for the uploader, but since July 2012 it has been possible to select a Creative Commons license as the default, allowing other users to reuse and remix the material if it is free of copyright.
Most modern smartphones are capable of accessing YouTube videos, either within an application or through an optimized website. YouTube Mobile was launched in June 2007, using RTSP streaming for the video. Not all of YouTube’s videos are available on the mobile version of the site.
Since June 2007, YouTube’s videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple products. This required YouTube’s content to be transcoded into Apple’s preferred video standard, H.264, a process that took several months. YouTube videos can be viewed on devices including Apple TV, iPod Touch and the iPhone. In July 2010, the mobile version of the site was relaunched based on HTML5, avoiding the need to use Adobe Flash Player and optimized for use with touch screen controls. The mobile version is also available as an app for the Android platform. In September 2012, YouTube launched its first app for the iPhone, following the decision to drop YouTube as one of the preloaded apps in the iPhone 5 and iOS 6 operating system.
A TiVo service update in July 2008 allowed the system to search and play YouTube videos. In January 2009, YouTube launched “YouTube for TV”, a version of the website tailored for set-top boxes and other TV-based media devices with web browsers, initially allowing its videos to be viewed on the PlayStation 3 and Wii video game consoles. In June 2009, YouTube XL was introduced, which has a simplified interface designed for viewing on a standard television screen. YouTube is also available as an app on Xbox Live. On November 15, 2012, Google launched an official app for the Wii, allowing users to watch YouTube videos from the Wii channel. An app is also available for Wii U and Nintendo 3DS, and videos can be viewed on the Wii U Internet Browser using HTML5. Google made YouTube available on the Roku player on December 17, 2013. According to GlobalWebIndex, YouTube was used by 35% of smartphone users between April and June 2013, making it the third most used app.
On June 19, 2007, Google CEO Eric Schmidt was in Paris to launch the new localization system. The interface of the website is available with localized versions in 74 countries, one territory (Hong Kong) and a worldwide version.
The YouTube interface suggests which local version should be chosen on the basis of the IP address of the user. In some cases, the message “This video is not available in your country” may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate content.
Access to YouTube was blocked in Turkey between 2008 and 2010, following controversy over the posting of videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and some material offensive to Muslims. In October 2012, a local version of YouTube was launched in Turkey, with the domain
youtube.com.tr. The local version is subject to the content regulations found in Turkish law.
In March 2009, a dispute between YouTube and the British royalty collection agency PRS for Music led to premium music videos being blocked for YouTube users in the United Kingdom. The removal of videos posted by the major record companies occurred after failure to reach agreement on a licensing deal. The dispute was resolved in September 2009. In April 2009, a similar dispute led to the removal of premium music videos for users in Germany.
On November 12, 2014, YouTube announced the launch of Music Key, a subscription music streaming service, providing advertising-free playback of official music videos hosted by YouTube, along with background and offline playback on mobile platforms. Music Key is intended to integrate with and replace the existing Google Play Music “All Access” service.
YouTube has featured an April Fools prank on the site on April 1 of every year since 2008:
- 2008: All the links to the videos on the main page were redirected to Rick Astley‘s music video “Never Gonna Give You Up“, a prank known as “Rickrolling“.
- 2009: When clicking on a video on the main page, the whole page turned upside down. YouTube claimed that this was a new layout.
- 2010: YouTube temporarily released a “TEXTp” mode, which translated the colors in the videos to random upper case letters. YouTube claimed in a message that this was done in order to reduce bandwidth costs by $1 per second.
- 2011: The site celebrated its “100th anniversary” with a “1911 button” and a range of sepia-toned silent, early 1900s-style films, including “Flugelhorn Feline”, a parody ofKeyboard Cat.
- 2012: Clicking on the image of a DVD next to the site logo led to a video about “The YouTube Collection”, an option to order every YouTube video for home delivery on DVD,videocassette, Laserdisc, or Betamax tapes. The spoof promotional video touted “the complete YouTube experience completely offline.”
- 2013: YouTube teamed up with newspaper satire company The Onion to claim that the video sharing website was launched as a contest which had finally come to an end, and would announce a winner of the contest when the site went back up in 2023. A video of two presenters announcing the nominees streamed live for twelve hours.
- 2014: YouTube announced that it was responsible for the creation of all viral video trends, and revealed previews of upcoming memes, such as “Clocking”, “Kissing Dad”, and “Glub Glub Water Dance”.
Both private individuals and large production companies have used YouTube to grow audiences. Independent content creators have built grassroots followings numbering in the thousands at very little cost or effort, while mass retail and radio promotion proved problematic. Concurrently, old media celebrities moved into the website at the invitation of a YouTube management that witnessed early content creators accruing substantial followings, and perceived audience sizes potentially larger than that attainable by television. While YouTube’s revenue-sharing “Partner Program” made it possible to earn a substantial living as a video producer—its top five hundred partners each earning more than $100,000 annually—in 2012 CMU business editor characterized YouTube as “a free-to-use… promotional platform for the music labels”. In 2013 Forbes‘Katheryn Thayer asserted that digital-era artists’ work must not only be of high quality, but must elicit reactions on the YouTube platform and social media. In 2013, videos of the 2.5% of artists categorized as “mega”, “mainstream” and “mid-sized” received 90.3% of the relevant views on YouTube and Vevo. By early 2013 Billboard had announced that it was factoring YouTube streaming data into calculation of the Billboard Hot 100 and related genre charts.
Observing that face-to-face communication of the type that online videos convey has been “fine-tuned by millions of years of evolution”, TED curator Chris Anderson referred to several YouTube contributors and asserted that “what Gutenberg did for writing, online video can now do for face-to-face communication”. Anderson asserted that it’s not far-fetched to say that online video will dramatically accelerate scientific advance, and that video contributors may be about to launch “the biggest learning cycle in human history.” In education, for example, the Khan Academy grew from YouTube video tutoring sessions for founder Salman Khan’s cousin into what Forbes‘ Michael Noer called “the largest school in the world”, with technology poised to disrupt how people learn.
YouTube was awarded a 2008 George Foster Peabody Award, the website being described as a Speakers’ Corner that “both embodies and promotes democracy.” The Washington Post reported that a disproportionate share of YouTube’s most subscribed channels feature minorities, contrasting with mainstream television in which the stars are largely white.
A Pew Research Center study reported the development of “visual journalism”, in which citizen eyewitnesses and established news organizations share in content creation.The study also concluded that YouTube was becoming an important platform by which people acquire news.
YouTube has enabled people to more directly engage with government, such as in the CNN/YouTube presidential debates (2007) in which ordinary people submitted questions to U.S. presidential candidates via YouTube video, with a techPresident co-founder saying that Internet video was changing the political landscape. Describing the Arab Spring (2010- ), sociologist Philip N. Howard quoted an activist’s succinct description that organizing the political unrest involved using “Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world.” In 2012, more than a third of the U.S. Senate introduced a resolution condemning Joseph Kony 16 days after the “Kony 2012” video was posted to YouTube, with resolution co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham remarking that the video “will do more to lead to (Kony’s) demise than all other action combined.”
Conversely, YouTube has also allowed government to more easily engage with citizens, the White House‘s official YouTube channel being the seventh top news organization producer on YouTube in 2012 and in 2013 a healthcare exchange commissionedObama impersonator Iman Crosson‘s YouTube music video spoof to encourage young Americans to enroll in the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)-compliant health insurance. In February 2014, U.S. President Obama held a meeting at the White House with leading YouTube content creators to not only promote awareness of Obamacare but more generally to develop ways for government to better connect with the “YouTube Generation”. Whereas YouTube’s inherent ability to allow presidents to directly connect with average citizens was noted, the YouTube content creators’ new media savvy was perceived necessary to better cope with the website’s distracting content and fickle audience.
TED curator Chris Anderson described a phenomenon by which geographically distributed individuals in a certain field share their independently developed skills in YouTube videos, thus challenging others to improve their own skills, and spurring invention and evolution in that field. Journalist Virginia Heffernan asserted in The New York Times that such videos have “surprising implications” for the dissemination of culture and even the future of classical music.
The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers and the YouTube Symphony Orchestra selected their membership based on individual video performances. Further, the cybercollaboration charity video “We Are the World 25 for Haiti (YouTube edition)” was formed by mixing performances of 57 globally distributed singers into a single musical work, with The Tokyo Times noting the “We Pray for You” YouTube cyber-collaboration video as an example of a trend to use crowdsourcing for charitable purposes.
The anti-bullying It Gets Better Project expanded from a single YouTube video directed to discouraged or suicidal LGBT teens, that within two months drew video responses from hundreds including U.S. President Barack Obama, Vice President Biden, White House staff, and several cabinet secretaries. Similarly, in response to fifteen year oldAmanda Todd‘s video “My story: Struggling, bullying, suicide, self harm”, legislative action was undertaken almost immediately after her suicide to study the prevalence of bullying and form a national anti-bullying strategy.
The vast majority of videos on YouTube are free to view and supported by advertising. In May 2007, YouTube launched its Partner Program, a system based on AdSensewhich allows the uploader of the video to share the revenue produced by advertising on the site. YouTube typically takes 45 percent of the advertising revenue from videos in the Partner Program, with 55 percent going to the uploader. There are over a million members of the YouTube Partner Program. According to TubeMogul, in 2013 a pre-roll advertisement on YouTube (one that is shown before the video starts) cost advertisers on average $7.60 per 1000 views. Usually no more than half of eligible videos have a pre-roll advertisement, due to a lack of interested advertisers. Assuming pre-roll advertisements on half of videos, a YouTube partner would earn 0.5 X $7.60 X 55% = $2.09 per 1000 views in 2013.
In May 2013, YouTube introduced a trial scheme of 53 subscription channels with prices ranging from $0.99 to $6.99 a month. The move was seen as an attempt to compete with other providers of online subscription services such as Netflix and Hulu.
YouTube has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the site’s features. Generally prohibited material includes sexually explicit content, videos of animal abuse,shock videos, content uploaded without the copyright holder’s consent, hate speech, spam, and predatory behaviour. Despite the guidelines, YouTube has faced criticism from news sources for content in violation of these guidelines.
At the time of uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a message asking them not to violate copyright laws. Despite this advice, there are still many unauthorized clips of copyrighted material on YouTube. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a DMCA takedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act. Three successful complaints for copyright infringement against a user account will result in the account and all of its uploaded videos being deleted.
Organizations including Viacom, Mediaset, and the English Premier League have filed lawsuits against YouTube, claiming that it has done too little to prevent the uploading of copyrighted material. Viacom, demanding $1 billion in damages, said that it had found more than 150,000 unauthorized clips of its material on YouTube that had been viewed “an astounding 1.5 billion times”. YouTube responded by stating that it “goes far beyond its legal obligations in assisting content owners to protect their works“.
During the same court battle, Viacom won a court ruling requiring YouTube to hand over 12 terabytes of data detailing the viewing habits of every user who has watched videos on the site. The decision was criticized by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, which called the court ruling “a setback to privacy rights”. In June 2010, Viacom’s lawsuit against Google was rejected in a summary judgment, with U.S. federal Judge Louis L. Stanton stating that Google was protected by provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Viacom announced its intention to appeal the ruling.
On April 5, 2012, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reinstated the case, allowing Viacom’s lawsuit against Google to be heard in court again. On March 18, 2014, the lawsuit was settled after seven years with an undisclosed agreement.
In August 2008, a US court ruled in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. that copyright holders cannot order the removal of an online file without first determining whether the posting reflected fair use of the material. The case involved Stephanie Lenz from Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, who had made a home video of her 13-month-old son dancing to Prince‘s song “Let’s Go Crazy“, and posted the 29-second video on YouTube.
In the case of Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC, professional singer Matt Smith sued Summit Entertainment for the wrongful use of copyright takedown notices on YouTube. He asserted seven causes of action, and four were ruled in Smith’s favor.
In April 2012, a court in Hamburg ruled that YouTube could be held responsible for copyrighted material posted by its users. The performance rights organization GEMA argued that YouTube had not done enough to prevent the uploading of German copyrighted music. YouTube responded by stating:
|“||We remain committed to finding a solution to the music licensing issue in Germany that will benefit artists, composers, authors, publishers and record labels, as well as the wider YouTube community.||”|
As of 2013, YouTube and GEMA have still not reached a licensing agreement. As a result, most videos containing copyrighted music have been blocked in Germany since 2009.
In April 2013, it was reported that Universal Music Group and YouTube have a contractual agreement that prevents content blocked on YouTube by a request from UMG from being restored, even if the uploader of the video files a DMCA counter-notice. When a dispute occurs, the uploader of the video has to contact UMG.
In June 2007, YouTube began trials of a system for automatic detection of uploaded videos that infringe copyright. The system was regarded by Google CEO Eric Schmidt as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom, which alleged that YouTube profited from pirated content. The system, which became known as Content ID, creates an ID File for copyrighted audio and video material, and stores it in a database. When a video is uploaded, it is checked against the database, and flags the video as a copyright violation if a match is found.
When this occurs, the content owner has the choice of blocking the video to make it unviewable, tracking the viewing statistics of the video, or adding advertisements to the video. YouTube describes Content ID as “very accurate in finding uploads that look similar to reference files that are of sufficient length and quality to generate an effective ID File”.Content ID accounts for over a third of the monetized views on YouTube.
An independent test in 2009 uploaded multiple versions of the same song to YouTube, and concluded that while the system was “surprisingly resilient” in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of videos, it was not infallible. The use of Content ID to remove material automatically has led to controversy in some cases, as the videos have not been checked by a human for fair use. If a YouTube user disagrees with a decision by Content ID, it is possible to fill in a form disputing the decision. YouTube has cited the effectiveness of Content ID as one of the reasons why the site’s rules were modified in December 2010 to allow some users to upload videos of unlimited length.
YouTube has also faced criticism over the offensive content in some of its videos. The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is prohibited by YouTube’s terms of service. Controversial content has included that pertaining to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster, in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in 1989.
YouTube relies on its users to flag the content of videos as inappropriate, and a YouTube employee will view a flagged video to determine whether it violates the site’s terms of service. In July 2008, the Culture and Media Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom stated that it was “unimpressed” with YouTube’s system for policing its videos, and argued that “proactive review of content should be standard practice for sites hosting user-generated content“. YouTube responded by stating:
|“||We have strict rules on what’s allowed, and a system that enables anyone who sees inappropriate content to report it to our 24/7 review team and have it dealt with promptly. We educate our community on the rules and include a direct link from every YouTube page to make this process as easy as possible for our users. Given the volume of content uploaded on our site, we think this is by far the most effective way to make sure that the tiny minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly. (July 2008)||”|
In October 2010, U.S. Congressman Anthony Weiner urged YouTube to remove from its website videos of imam Anwar al-Awlaki, saying that by hosting al-Awlaki’s messages, “We are facilitating the recruitment of homegrown terror”. British security minister Pauline Neville-Jones commented: “These Web sites would categorically not be allowed in the U.K. They incite cold-blooded murder, and as such are surely contrary to the public good.” YouTube pulled some of the videos in November 2010, stating they violated the site’s guidelines prohibiting “dangerous or illegal activities such as bomb-making, hate speech and incitement to commit violent acts”, or came from accounts “registered by a member of a designated foreign terrorist organization“. In December 2010, YouTube added “promotes terrorism” to the list of reasons that users can give when flagging a video as inappropriate.
Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content. In 2006, Time praised Web 2.0 for enabling “community and collaboration on a scale never seen before”, and added that YouTube “harnesses the stupidity of crowds as well as its wisdom. Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred”. The Guardian in 2009 described users’ comments on YouTube as:
|“||Juvenile, aggressive, misspelled, sexist, homophobic, swinging from raging at the contents of a video to providing a pointlessly detailed description followed by a LOL, YouTube comments are a hotbed of infantile debate and unashamed ignorance – with the occasional burst of wit shining through.||”|
In September 2008, The Daily Telegraph commented that YouTube was “notorious” for “some of the most confrontational and ill-formed comment exchanges on the internet”, and reported on YouTube Comment Snob, “a new piece of software that blocks rude and illiterate posts”. The Huffington Post noted in April 2012 that finding comments on YouTube that appear “offensive, stupid and crass” to the “vast majority” of the people is hardly difficult.
On November 6, 2013, Google implemented a new comment system that requires all YouTube users to use a Google+ account in order to comment on videos and making the comment system Google+ oriented. The changes are in large part an attempt to address the frequent criticisms of the quality and tone of YouTube comments. They give creators more power to moderate and block comments, and add new sorting mechanisms to ensure better, more relevant discussions appear at the top. The new system restored the ability to include URLs in comments, which had previously been removed due to problems with abuse.
YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim posted the question, “why the fuck do I need a google+ account to comment on a video?” on his YouTube channel to express his negative opinion of the change. The official YouTube announcement received 20,097 “thumbs down” votes and generated more than 32,000 comments in two days. Writing in the Newsday blog Silicon Island, Chase Melvin noted that “Google+ is nowhere near as popular a social media network as Facebook, but it’s essentially being forced upon millions of YouTube users who don’t want to lose their ability to comment on videos” and “Discussion forums across the Internet are already bursting with outcry against the new comment system”. In the same article Melvin goes on to say:
|“||Perhaps user complaints are justified, but the idea of revamping the old system isn’t so bad.Think of the crude, misogynistic and racially-charged mudslinging that has transpired over the last eight years on YouTube without any discernible moderation. Isn’t any attempt to curb unidentified libelers worth a shot? The system is far from perfect, but Google should be lauded for trying to alleviate some of the damage caused by irate YouTubers hiding behind animosity and anonymity.||”|
In December 2012, two billion views were removed from the view counts of Universal and Sony music videos on YouTube, prompting a claim by The Daily Dot that the views had been deleted due to a violation of the site’s terms of service, which ban the use of automated processes to inflate view counts. This was disputed by Billboard, which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active on YouTube.
Censorship and filtering
YouTube is blocked for a variety of reasons, including:
- limiting public exposure to content that may ignite social or political unrest;
- preventing criticism of a ruler, government, government officials, religion, or religious leaders;
- violations of national laws, including:
- preventing access to videos judged to be inappropriate for youth;
- reducing distractions at work or school; and
- reducing the amount of network bandwidth used.
In some countries, YouTube is completely blocked, either through a long term standing ban or for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to upcoming political anniversaries. In other countries access to the website as a whole remains open, but access to specific videos is blocked. In cases where the entire site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube will often agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service.
Businesses, schools, government agencies, and other private institutions often block social media sites, including YouTube, due to bandwidth limitations and the site’s inevitable potential for distraction.
Several countries have blocked access to YouTube:
- Iran temporarily blocked access on December 3, 2006, to YouTube and several other sites, after declaring them as violating social and moral codes of conduct. The YouTube block came after a video was posted online that appeared to show an Iranian soap opera star having sex. The block was later lifted and then reinstated after Iran’s 2009 presidential election. In 2012, Iran reblocked access, along with access to Google, after the controversial film Innocence of Muslims‘ trailer was released on YouTube.
- Thailand blocked access between 2006 and 2007 due to offensive videos relating to King Bhumibol Adulyadej.
- Some Australian state education departments block YouTube citing an inability to determine what sort of video material might be accessed.
- China blocked access from October 15, 2007, to March 22, 2008, and again starting on March 24, 2009. Access remains blocked.
- Morocco blocked access in May 2007, possibly as a result of videos critical of Morocco’s actions in Western Sahara. YouTube became accessible again on May 30, 2007, after Maroc Telecom unofficially announced that the denied access to the website was a mere “technical glitch”.
- Turkey blocked access between 2008 and 2010 after controversy over videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. In November 2010, a video of the Turkish politician Deniz Baykal caused the site to be blocked again briefly, and the site was threatened with a new shutdown if it did not remove the video. During the two and a half year block of YouTube, the video-sharing website remained the eighth most-accessed site in Turkey. In 2014, Turkey blocked the access for the second time, after “a high-level intelligence leak.”
- Pakistan blocked access on February 23, 2008, because of “offensive material” towards the Islamic faith, including display of the Danish cartoons of Muhammad. This led to a near global blackout of the YouTube site for around two hours, as the Pakistani block was inadvertently transferred to other countries. On February 26, 2008, the ban was lifted after the website had removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government. Many Pakistanis circumvented the three-day block by using virtual private network software. In May 2010, following the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day, Pakistan again blocked access to YouTube, citing “growing sacrilegious content”. The ban was lifted on May 27, 2010, after the website removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government. However, individual videos deemed offensive to Muslims posted on YouTube will continue to be blocked. Pakistan again placed a ban on YouTube in September 2012, after the site refused to remove the film Innocence of Muslims, with the ban still in operation as of September 2013.
- Turkmenistan blocked access on December 25, 2009, for unknown reasons. Other websites, such as LiveJournal were also blocked.
- Libya blocked access on January 24, 2010, because of videos that featured demonstrations in the city of Benghazi by families of detainees who were killed in Abu Salim prison in 1996, and videos of family members of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi at parties. The blocking was criticized by Human Rights Watch. In November 2011, after the Libyan Civil War, YouTube was once again allowed in Libya.
- Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Russia, and Sudan blocked access in September 2012 following controversy over a 14 minute trailer for the film Innocence of Muslims which had been posted on the site.
- In Libya and Egypt, the Innocence of Muslims trailer was blamed for violent protests in September 2012. YouTube stated that “This video—which is widely available on the Web—is clearly within our guidelines and so will stay on YouTube. However, given the very difficult situation in Libya and Egypt we have temporarily restricted access in both countries.”
Music Key licensing
In May 2014, prior to the launch of YouTube’s subscription-based Music Key service, the independent music trade organization Worldwide Independent Network alleged that YouTube was using non-negotiable contracts with independent labels that were “undervalued” in comparison to other streaming services, and that YouTube would block all music content from labels who do not reach a deal to be included on the paid service. In a statement to the Financial Times in June 2014, Robert Kyncl confirmed that YouTube would block the content of labels who do not negotiate deals to be included in the paid service “to ensure that all content on the platform is governed by its new contractual terms.” Stating that 90% of labels had reached deals, he went on to say that “while we wish that we had [a] 100% success rate, we understand that is not likely an achievable goal and therefore it is our responsibility to our users and the industry to launch the enhanced music experience.” The Financial Times later reported that YouTube had reached an aggregate deal with Merlin Network—a trade group representing over 20,000 independent labels, for their inclusion in the service. However, YouTube itself has not confirmed the deal.
- CNN-YouTube presidential debates
- List of YouTube personalities
- Ouellette v. Viacom International Inc.
- Reply Girls
- YouTube Awards
- YouTube Instant
- YouTube Live
- YouTube Multi Channel Network
- YouTube Symphony Orchestra
- Viacom International Inc. v. YouTube, Inc.
- Alternative media
- Comparison of video hosting services
- List of Internet phenomena
- List of video hosting services
- Lextrait, Vincent (July 2010). “YouTube runs on Python”. Archived from the originalon May 30, 2012. Retrieved September 5, 2010.
- “Youtube.com Site Info”. Alexa Internet. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- “YouTube language versions”. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Hopkins, Jim (October 11, 2006). “Surprise! There’s a third YouTube co-founder”. USA Today. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- “Google buys YouTube for $1.65 billion”. NBC News.
- Weber, Tim (March 2, 2007). “BBC strikes Google-YouTube deal”. BBC. RetrievedJanuary 17, 2009.
- Graham, Jefferson (November 21, 2005). “Video websites pop up, invite postings”.USA Today. Retrieved July 28, 2006.
- “YouTube: Sharing Digital Camera Videos”. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- Cloud, John (December 16, 2006). “The Gurus of YouTube”. Time Magazine. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- “Surprise! There’s a third YouTube co-founder”. USA Today. October 11, 2006. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- “The YouTube Gurus”. Time.com. December 25, 2006. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- Earliest surviving version of the YouTube website Wayback Machine, April 28, 2005. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- Miguel Helft and Matt Richtel (October 10, 2006). “Venture Firm Shares a YouTube Jackpot”. The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- Sara Kehaulani Goo (October 7, 2006). “Ready for Its Close-Up”. Washington Post. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- “Whois Record for
www.youtube.com“. DomainTools. Retrieved April 1, 2009.
- Alleyne, Richard (July 31, 2008). “YouTube: Overnight success has sparked a backlash”. The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- “Me at the zoo”. YouTube. April 23, 2005. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- “YouTube serves up 100 million videos a day online”. USA Today. July 16, 2006. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- “comScore Releases May 2010 U.S. Online Video Rankings”. comScore. RetrievedJune 27, 2010.
- “YouTube’s Music Key: Can paid streaming finally hook the masses?”.
- Gustav, Radell. “300 timmar film laddas upp på Youtube – i minuten”.
- Oreskovic, Alexei (January 23, 2012). “YouTube hits 4 billion daily video views”. Reuters. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
- “Statistics”. YouTube Press Office. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
- “Eric Schmidt, Princeton Colloquium on Public & Int’l Affairs”. YouTube. RetrievedJune 1, 2009.
- Seabrook, John (January 16, 2012). “Streaming Dreams”. The New Yorker. Retrieved January 6, 2012.
- Carter, Lewis (April 7, 2008). “Web could collapse as video demand soars”. The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved April 21, 2008.
- “Alexa Traffic Rank for YouTube (three month average)”. Alexa Internet. RetrievedMarch 30, 2010.
- Zappone, Christian (October 12, 2006). “Help! YouTube is killing my business!”. CNN. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- Blakely, Rhys (November 2, 2006). “Utube sues YouTube”. The Times (London). Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- Reuters (November 14, 2006). “Google closes $A2b YouTube deal”. The Age(Melbourne). Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- Yen, Yi-Wyn (March 25, 2008). “YouTube Looks For the Money Clip”. RetrievedMarch 26, 2008.
- Hardy, Quentin; Evan Hessel (May 22, 2008). “GooTube”. Forbes Magazine. RetrievedAugust 3, 2009.
- Knowledge@wharton. “Online Video: The Market Is Hot, but Business Models Are Fuzzy”. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- Brad Stone and Brooks Barnes (November 10, 2008). “MGM to Post Full Films on YouTube”. The New York Times. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- Staci D. Kramer (April 30, 2009). “It’s Official: Disney Joins News Corp., NBCU In Hulu; Deal Includes Some Cable Nets”. paidContent.org. Retrieved April 30, 2009.
- Allen, Katie (November 19, 2009). “YouTube launches UK TV section with more than 60 partners”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- Miguel Helft (January 20, 2010). “YouTube takes a small step into the film rental market”. The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- Shiels, Maggie (January 21, 2010). “YouTube turns to movie rental business”. BBC News. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
- “YouTube to offer film rentals in the UK”. BBC News. October 7, 2011. RetrievedOctober 7, 2011.
- Tsotsis, Alexia (May 9, 2011). “Google Partners With Sony Pictures, Universal And Warner Brothers For YouTube Movies”. techcrunch.com. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- Sweney, Mark (January 20, 2010). “Cricket: IPL goes global with live online deal”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved February 6, 2010.
- “YouTube redesigns website to keep viewers captivated”. AFP. Retrieved April 1,2010.
- Chapman, Glenn. “YouTube serving up two billion videos daily”. AFP. RetrievedMay 17, 2010.
- “Hurley stepping down as YouTube chief executive”. AFP. October 29, 2010. RetrievedOctober 30, 2010.
- Whitelaw, Ben (April 20, 2011). “Almost all YouTube views come from just 30% of films”. The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Whitney, Lance (November 4, 2011). “Google+ now connects with YouTube, Chrome”.CNET. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
- “YouTube’s website redesign puts the focus on channels”. BBC. December 2, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- Cashmore, Pete (October 26, 2006). “YouTube Gets New Logo, Facelift and Trackbacks – Growing Fast!”. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- “YouTube launches pay-to-watch subscription channels”. BBC News. May 9, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Nakaso, Dan (May 7, 2013). “YouTube providers could begin charging fees this week”.Mercury News. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
- Fildes, Jonathan (October 5, 2009). “Flash moves on to smart phones”. BBC. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- “YouTube HTML5 Video Player”. YouTube. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
- “Watch this YouTube Video without the Flash Player”. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- “HTML5 YouTube viewer: close, but not quite there”. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- “YouTube HTML5 Video Player”. Retrieved January 21, 2010.
- Shankland, Stephen (May 19, 2010). “Google tries freeing Web video with WebM”.CNET.com. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
- Rajeev Tiwari (January 3, 2013). “Streaming Media and RTOS: MPEG-DASH Support in Youtube”. Streamingcodecs.blogspot.hu. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- YouTube: Google I/O 2013 – Adaptive Streaming for You and YouTube on YouTube
- Video length for uploading YouTube Help. Retrieved April 17, 2012.
- Fisher, Ken. “YouTube caps video lengths to reduce infringement”. Ars Technica. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
- “Account Types: Longer videos”. YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
- Lowensohn, Josh (July 29, 2010). “YouTube bumps video limit to 15 minutes”. CNET. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- “Upload videos longer than 15 minutes”. YouTube. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
- “Video Formats: File formats”. YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
- “Getting Started: File formats”. YouTube. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- Tinic Uro (August 13, 2005). “The quest for a new video codec in Flash 8”. RetrievedJanuary 27, 2011.
We went this route before with Sorenson Spark which is an incomplete implementation of H.263 and it bit us badly when trying to implement certain solutions.
- Adobe Systems Incorporated (2010). “Adobe Flash Video File Format Specification Version 10.1” (PDF). p. 72. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
- “Market Demand for Sorenson Media’s Sorenson Spark Video Decoder Expands Sharply”. Sorenson Media. June 2, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
- “YouTube Mobile goes live”. June 17, 2007. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
- “YouTube Blog – YouTube Videos in High Quality”. YouTube. March 24, 2008. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
- “YouTube videos go HD with a simple hack”. CNET. November 20, 2008. RetrievedAugust 14, 2010.
- “What’s bigger than 1080p? 4K video comes to YouTube”. Official YouTube Blog. July 9, 2010. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
- Lowensohn, Josh (July 9, 2010). “YouTube now supports 4k-resolution videos”. CNET. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
- “Advanced encoding settings – YouTube Help”. Google. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
- Glotzbach, Matthew (June 26, 2014). “Look ahead: creator features coming to YouTube”. The Official YouTube Partners & Creators Blog.
- Stuart, Keith (June 27, 2014). “Battlefield Hardline ushers in era of smooth YouTube trailers”. The Guardian. Retrieved June 29, 2014.
- Kumparak, Greg (October 29, 2014). “YouTube Can Now Play Videos At A Buttery 60 Frames Per Second”.
- “Deploying VP9 at YouTube: a postmortem – Steven Robertson”. October 16, 2014. Retrieved December 9, 2014.
- Macall, Fred (2013). “YTCrack v0.24b”. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- McFarland, Patrick (May 24, 2010). “Approximate YouTube Bitrates”. RetrievedAugust 12, 2010.
- “Bigger and Better: Encoding for YouTube 720p HD”. December 2008. RetrievedAugust 12, 2010.
- Greenfield, Trevor (November 22, 2009). “YouTube’s 1080p – Failure Depends on How You Look At It”. Retrieved August 12, 2010.[dead link]
- Biggs, Billy (November 12, 2009). “1080p HD Is Coming to YouTube”. RetrievedAugust 12, 2010.
- “YouTube in 3D”. YouTube. July 21, 2009. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Marquit, Miranda (July 23, 2009). “YouTube in 3D?”. Physorg. Retrieved August 3,2009.
- Dsouza, Keith (July 20, 2009). “YouTube 3D Videos”. Techie Buzz. RetrievedAugust 3, 2009.
- Sobti, Kshitij (July 21, 2009). “YouTube adds a dimension, 3D goggles not included”.thinkdigit. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Ryan Smith (May 26, 2011). “YouTube Adds Stereoscopic 3D Video Support (And 3D Vision Support, Too)”. AnandTech. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- “YouTube embedded video guide”.
- “So long, video responses… Next up: better ways to connect”. YouTube Creators Blog. August 27, 2013. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- YouTube. “Control comments and video responses”. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- CNET (January 16, 2009). “(Some) YouTube videos get download option”. RetrievedJanuary 17, 2009.
- Milian, Mark (February 19, 2009). “YouTube looks out for content owners, disables video ripping”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 21, 2009.
- Rao, Leena (February 12, 2009). “YouTube Hopes To Boost Revenue With Video Downloads”. Washington Post. Retrieved February 19, 2009.
- Torrentfreak (June 19, 2012). “Google Threatens To Sue Huge YouTube MP3 Conversion Site”. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
- Zamzar (June 12, 2012). “Downloading YouTube videos – no longer supported”. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
- “Here’s your invite to reuse and remix the 4 million Creative Commons-licensed videos on YouTube”. YouTube Official Blog. July 25, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- “YouTube Mobile”.
- Google Operating System (June 15, 2007). “Mobile YouTube”. Retrieved January 17,2009.
- “YouTube Live on Apple TV Today; Coming to iPhone on June 29”. Apple. June 20, 2007. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- Zibreg, Christian (July 8, 2010). “Goodbye Flash: YouTube mobile goes HTML5 on iPhone and Android”. Retrieved January 9, 2012.
- Kincaid, Jason (July 7, 2010). “YouTube Mobile Goes HTML5, Video Quality Beats Native Apps Hands Down”. Retrieved January 9, 2012.
- Google Mobile Blog (December 8, 2010). “YouTube 2.1 App Now Available on Android Market”. Retrieved January 9, 2012.
- “New YouTube iPhone app preempts iOS6 demotion”. The Guardian. September 11, 2012. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- “TiVo Getting YouTube Streaming Today”. Gizmodo. July 17, 2007. RetrievedFebruary 17, 2009.
- “YouTube video comes to Wii and PlayStation 3 game consoles”. Los Angeles Times. January 15, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- “Coming Up Next… YouTube on Your TV”. YouTube Blog. January 15, 2009. Archived from the original on November 29, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
- “Experience YouTube XL on the Big Screen”. YouTube Blog. YouTube. June 2, 2009. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
- “Xbox Live Getting Live TV, YouTube & Bing Voice Search”. Mashable. June 6, 2011. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- “YouTube app wanders onto Nintendo Wii days before Wii U launch”. Techradar.com. November 15, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- “Just for U: YouTube arrives on Wii U”. Youtube.com. November 22, 2012. RetrievedDecember 17, 2012.
- Variety: YouTube Channel Now Playing on Roku Retrieved December 17, 2013
- Cooper Smith (September 5, 2013). “Google+ Is The Fourth Most-Used Smartphone App”. Business Insider. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
- Sayer, Peter (June 19, 2007). “Google launches YouTube France News”. PC Advisor. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- “YouTube content locations”. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
- “Presentan hoy YouTube México” [YouTube México launched today] (in Spanish). El Universal. October 11, 2007. Retrieved September 9, 2010.[dead link]
- “中文上線 – YouTube 香港中文版登場！”. Stanley5. October 17, 2007. RetrievedJanuary 2, 2012.
- “YouTube台灣網站上線 手機版再等等”. ZDNet. October 18, 2007. RetrievedJanuary 2, 2012.[dead link]
- Nicole, Kristen (October 22, 2007). “YouTube Launches in Australia & New Zealand”. Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Nicole, Kristen (November 6, 2007). “YouTube Canada Now Live”. Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Ostrow, Adam (November 8, 2007). “YouTube Germany Launches”. Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- “YouTube перевелся на русский” (in Russian). Kommersant Moscow. November 14, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- Williams, Martyn (January 23, 2008). “YouTube Launches Korean Site”. PC World. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- Joshi, Sandeep (May 8, 2008). “YouTube now has an Indian incarnation”. The Hindu(Chennai, India). Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Bokuvka, Petr (October 12, 2008). “Czech version of YouTube launched. And it’s crap. It sucks”. The Czech Daily Word (WordPress.com). Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Launch video unavailable when YouTube opens up in Sweden October 23, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- “YouTube launches in Argentina”. September 9, 2010. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
- “YouTube Launches Local Version For Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia and Yemen”. ArabCrunch. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
- Jidenma, Nmachi (September 1, 2011). “Google launches YouTube in Kenya”. The Next Web. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- Nod, Tam (October 13, 2011). “YouTube launches ‘The Philippines'”. The Philippine Star. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- “YouTube launches Singapore site”. TODAY. October 20, 2011. Retrieved October 20,2011.[dead link]
- YouTube launches localized website for Colombia December 1, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
- Google Launches YouTube Uganda December 2, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
- Google to Launch YouTube Nigeria Today December 7, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
- Google launches YouTube Chile[dead link] March 19, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- Google Launches Hungarian YouTube[dead link] March 12, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- YouTube Launches Local Domain For Malaysia March 22, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- YouTube Peru Launched, Expansion continues March 27, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
- Bindu Suresh Rai (April 2, 2012). “UAE version of YouTube launched”. Emirates 247. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- “YouTube Launches Indonesian Version”, June 15, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- “Google launches YouTube in Ghana”, June 22, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- “YouTube launches local portal in Senegal”, Jubr
- “YouTube’s Turkish version goes into service”, October 1, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- Tarasova, Maryna (December 13, 2012). “YouTube приходить в Україну! (YouTube comes in Ukraine!)” (in Ukrainian). Ukraine: Google Ukraine Blog.
- “YouTube lanceres i Danmark”. Denmark: iProspect. Retrieved April 17, 2013.[dead link]
- Sormunen, Vilja (February 6, 2013). “YouTube Launches in the Nordics”. Nordic: KLOK. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
- “YOUTUBE LAUNCHED IN NORWAY”. Norway: TONO. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- “YouTube goes Swiss”. Swiss: swissinfo. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- “YouTube.at since Thursday online”. Austria: Wiener Zeitung. Retrieved April 17,2013.
- “Youtube România se lansează într-o săptămână”. Romania: ZF.ro. Retrieved May 14,2013.
- “Google lança versão lusa do YouTube”. Portugal: Luso Noticias. Retrieved May 14,2013.
- tš (May 21, 2013). “Slováci už môžu oficiálne zarábať na tvorbe videí pre YouTube”(in Slovak). Vat Pravda. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- Nick Rego (September 16, 2013). “YouTube expands monetization and partnership in GCC”. tbreak Media. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- Ивелина Атанасова (March 18, 2014). “YouTube рекламата става достъпна и за България” (in Bulgarian). New Trend. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- “Oglašavanje na video platformi YouTube od sad dostupno i u Hrvatskoj” (in Croatian). Lider. March 19, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- Siiri Oden (March 19, 2014). “Youtube reklaamid – uued võimalused nüüd ka Eestis!”(in Estonian). Meedium. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- Marta (March 18, 2014). “Tagad reklāmas iespējas Youtube kanālā iespējams izmantot arī Latvijā” (in Latvian). Marketing. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- STA (March 18, 2014). “Na Youtube prihajajo tudi slovenski video oglasi” (in Slovenian). Dnevnik. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- Asina Pornwasin (April 3, 2014). “YouTube introduces homepage especially”. The Nation. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
- “Learn More: Video not available in my country”. YouTube Help. Retrieved August 4,2009.
- “Turkey lifts two-year ban on YouTube”. BBC News. October 30, 2010. RetrievedOctober 3, 2012.
- Danforth, Nick (July 31, 2009). “Turks censor YouTube censorship”. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
- “YouTube cedes to Turkey and uses local Web domain”. CNET. October 2, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- Barnett, Emma (September 3, 2009). “Music videos back on YouTube in multi-million pound PRS deal”. The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved September 3, 2009.
- “Now YouTube stops the music in Germany”. The Guardian (London). April 1, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2009.
- Trew, James (November 12, 2014). “YouTube unveils Music Key subscription service, here’s what you need to know”. Engadget. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
- Newton, Casey (November 12, 2014). “YouTube announces plans for a subscription music service”. The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
- Spangler, Todd (November 12, 2014). “YouTube Launches ‘Music Key’ Subscription Service with More Than 30 Million Songs”. Variety. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
- “YouTube RickRolls Users”. TechCrunch.com. March 31, 2008. Retrieved April 2,2010.
- “YouTube RickRolls April Fools In”. RyanSpoon.com. March 31, 2008. RetrievedApril 2, 2010.
- “April fools: YouTube turns the world up-side-down”. searchcowboys.com. April 1, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- “TEXTp saves YouTube bandwidth, money”. YouTube. April 1, 2010. Retrieved April 2,2010.
- Richmond, Shane (April 1, 2011). “YouTube goes back to 1911 for April Fools’ Day”.The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved April 1, 2011.
- Owen, Pamela; Keneally, Meghan (April 1, 2012). “Simon Cowell’s bromance, the self-driving Nascar and Hungry Hippos for iPad… the best April Fools’ gags”. The Daily Mail(London). Retrieved April 2, 2012.
- Quan, Kristene (April 1, 2013). “WATCH: YouTube Announces It Will Shut Down”.Time.com. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- YouTube Reveals Its Viral Secrets In April Fools’ Day Video Kleinman, Alexis,Huffington Post, April 1, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Bruno, Antony (February 25, 2007). “YouTube stars don’t always welcome record deals”. Reuters. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014.
- Tufnell, Nicholas (November 27, 2013). “The rise and fall of YouTube’s celebrity pioneers”. Wired UK. Archived from the original on January 13, 2014.
- Seabrook, John (January 16, 2012). “Streaming Dreams / YouTube turns pro”. The New Yorker. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014.
- “Gangnam Style hits one billion views on YouTube”. BBC News. December 21, 2012. Archived from the original on January 19, 2014.
- Thayer, Katheryn (October 29, 2013). “The Youtube Music Awards: Why Artists Should Care”. Forbes. Archived from the original on November 6, 2013.
- “2013: Year in Rewind (report title) / Mapping the Landscape (specific section title)”.Next Big Sound. January 2014. Archived from the original on January 20, 2014.“Developing” artists 6.9%; “Undiscovered” artists 2.8%.
- Billboard staff (February 20, 2013). “Hot 100 News: Billboard and Nielsen Add YouTube Video Streaming to Platforms”. Billboard. Archived from the original on January 19, 2014.
- Anderson, Chris (July 2010). “How web video powers global innovation”. TED. Archived from the original on December 25, 2013. (click on “Show transcript” tab) • Corresponding YouTube video from official TED channel was titled “How YouTube is driving innovation.”
- Noer, Michael (November 2, 2012). “One Man, One Computer, 10 Million Students: How Khan Academy Is Reinventing Education”. Forbes. Archived from the original on December 29, 2013.
- 68th Annual Peabody Awards, May 2009.
- Tsukayama, Hayley (April 20, 2012). “In online video, minorities find an audience”. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 18, 2014.
- Journalism Project Staff (July 16, 2012). “PEJ: YouTube & News: A New Kind of Visual Journalism Is Developing, but Ethics of Attribution Have Yet to Emerge”. Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on December 30, 2013.
- Journalism Project Staff (July 16, 2012). “YouTube and News: A New Kind of Visual News”. Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013.
- Seelye, Katharine Q. (June 13, 2007). “New Presidential Debate Site? Clearly, YouTube”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 19, 2014.
- Howard, Philip N. (February 23, 2011). “The Arab Spring’s Cascading Effects”. Pacific Standard. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014.
- Wong, Scott (March 22, 2012). “Joseph Kony captures Congress’ attention”. Politico. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014.
- Cohen, Joshua (March 2, 2014). “Obama Meets With YouTube Advisors On How To Reach Online Audiences”. Tubefilter. Archived from the original on March 3, 2014.
- Jenkins, Brad L. (March 6, 2014). “YouTube Stars Talk Health Care (and Make History) at the White House”. Washington, D.C.: WhiteHouse.gov. Archived from the originalon March 7, 2014.
- Journalism Project Staff (July 16, 2012). “YouTube Video Creation–A Shared Process”.Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on December 31, 2013.
- Reston, Maeve (December 12, 2013). “Round 2: Obamacare and Hollywood open new social media campaign”. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 28, 2013.
- McMorris-Santoro, Evan (March 2, 2014). “Obama Enlisted YouTube Personalities For Final Health Care Enrollment Push Last Week”. Buzzfeed. Archived from the originalon March 3, 2014.
- CNN Wire Staff (September 14, 2012). “U.S. warns of rising threat of violence amid outrage over anti-Islam video”. CNN. Archived from the original on December 29, 2013.
- Heffernan, Virginia (August 27, 2006). “Web Guitar Wizard Revealed at Last”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014.
- Chu, Jon M. (February 2010). “The LXD: In the Internet age, dance evolves”. TED. Archived from the original on January 18, 2014.
- Nichols, Michelle (reporter); Simao, Paul (editor) (April 14, 2009). “YouTube orchestra prepares for Carnegie debut”. Reuters. Archived from the original on January 19, 2014.
- Levs, Josh (interviewer) (March 6, 2010). “CNN Newsroom”. CNN. Archived from the original on July 22, 2010. Also CNN Saturday Morning News and CNN Sunday Morning (archives).
- Smart, Richard (May 11, 2011). “Crowdsourcing: After Quakebook, We Pray For You”.The Tokyo Times. Archived from the original on May 28, 2011.
- Hartlaub, Peter (October 8, 2010). “Dan Savage overwhelmed by gay outreach’s response”. San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014.
- “It Gets Better”. WhiteHouse.gov. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014.
- “In wake of Amanda Todd suicide, MPs to debate anti-bullying motion”. CTV News. October 14, 2012. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014.
- Biggs, John (May 4, 2007). “YouTube Launches Revenue Sharing Partners Program, but no Pre-Rolls”. TechCrunch. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- Carmody, Tim (March 4, 2013). “It’s not TV, it’s the Web: YouTube partners complain about Google ads, revenue sharing”. The Verge. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- Statistics – YouTube Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- “Chasing Their Star, on YouTube”. New York Times.
- McAllister, Neil (May 9, 2013). “YouTube launches subscriptions with 53 paid channels”. The Register. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- “YouTube Community Guidelines”. YouTube. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- Marsden, Rhodri (August 12, 2009). “Why did my YouTube account get closed down?”.The Independent (London). Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- Why do I have a sanction on my account? YouTube. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- “Is YouTube’s three-strike rule fair to users?”. BBC News (London). May 21, 2010. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- “Viacom will sue YouTube for $1bn”. BBC News. March 13, 2007. Retrieved May 26,2008.
- “Mediaset Files EUR500 Million Suit Vs Google’s YouTube”. CNNMoney.com. July 30, 2008. Retrieved August 19, 2009.
- “Premier League to take action against YouTube”. The Daily Telegraph (London). May 5, 2007. Retrieved May 24, 2008.
- “YouTube law fight ‘threatens net'”. BBC News. May 27, 2008. Retrieved May 28,2008.
- “Google must divulge YouTube log”. BBC News (BBC News). July 3, 2008.
- Helft, Miguel (July 4, 2008). “Google Told to Turn Over User Data of YouTube”. The New York Times.
- Lefkow, Chris (June 23, 2010). “US judge tosses out Viacom copyright suit against YouTube”. AFP. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- “Google and Viacom: YouTube copyright lawsuit back on”. BBC News. April 5, 2012. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
- “Google and Viacom settle seven-year YouTube row”. BBC News. March 18, 2014. Retrieved March 18, 2014.
- Egelko, Bob (August 20, 2008). “Woman can sue over YouTube clip de-posting”. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- Ohio Northern District Court (July 18, 2013). “Court Docket”. Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC. Docket Alarm, Inc. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
- District Judge James G. Carr (June 6, 2011). “Order”. Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC. United States District Court, N.D. Ohio, Western Division. Retrieved November 7,2011.
- “YouTube loses court battle over music clips”. BBC News (London). April 20, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
- “YouTube’s Deal With Universal Blocks DMCA Counter Notices”. TorrentFreak. April 5, 2013. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- “Videos removed or blocked due to YouTube’s contractual obligations”. Google. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- Delaney, Kevin J. (June 12, 2007). “YouTube to Test Software To Ease Licensing Fights”. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- More about Content ID YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Press Statistics YouTube. Retrieved March 13, 2012.
- Von Lohmann, Fred (April 23, 2009). “Testing YouTube’s Audio Content ID System”. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Von Lohmann, Fred (February 3, 2009). “YouTube’s January Fair Use Massacre”. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Content ID disputes YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Up, Up and Away – Long videos for more users YouTube, December 9, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
- “YouTube criticized in Germany over anti-Semitic Nazi videos”. Reuters. RetrievedMay 28, 2008.
- “Fury as YouTube carries sick Hillsboro video insult”. icLiverpool. Retrieved May 24,2008.[dead link]
- Kirkup, James; Martin, Nicole (July 31, 2008). “YouTube attacked by MPs over sex and violence footage”. The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved August 21, 2008.
- “Al-Awlaki’s YouTube Videos Targeted by Rep. Weiner”. Fox News. October 25, 2010. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
- Burns, John F.; Helft, Miguel (November 4, 2010). “YouTube Withdraws Cleric’s Videos”. The New York Times. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
- Bennett, Brian (December 12, 2010). “YouTube is letting users decide on terrorism-related videos”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- “Time’s Person of the Year: You”, Time, December 13, 2006
- Owen, Paul (November 3, 2009). “Our top 10 funniest YouTube comments – what are yours?”. Guardian. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- “YouTube’s worst comments blocked by filter”, Daily Telegraph, September 2, 2008
- Rundle, Michael (April 7, 2012). “Policing Racism Online: Liam Stacey, YouTube And The Law Of Big Numbers”. The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
- “YouTube aims to tame the trolls with changes to its comments section”, Stuart Dredge, The Guardian, November 7, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- “No more links in comments?”. Google product forums. 2009. Retrieved August 28,2013.
- “View and post comments”. Google Support. 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- Hern, Alex (November 8, 2013). “YouTube co-founder hurls abuse at Google over new YouTube comments”. The Guardian. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- “Meet the new YouTube comments” on YouTube, November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- “YouTube Founder Blasts New YouTube Comments: Jawed Karim Outraged At Google Plus Requirement”, Ryan W. Neal, International Business Times, November 8, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- Chase, Melvin (November 20, 2013). “YouTube comments require Google+ account, Google faces uproar”. Newsday. (subscription required) Alternate link.
- “YouTube strips Universal and Sony of 2 billion fake views”. The Daily Dot. December 21, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- “Two billion YouTube music video views disappear … or just migrate?”. The Guardian. December 28, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- “YouTube Censored: A Recent History”, OpenNet Initiative. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- Tait, Robert (November 4, 2006). “Censorship fears rise as Iran blocks access to top websites”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved December 17, 2006.
- “Mobile phones, Facebook, YouTube cut in Iran”. American Free Press. Google. July 13, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- “Iran blocks YouTube, Google over Mohammed video”. CNN.com. September 24, 2012. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
- “Thailand blocks access to YouTube”. BBC. April 4, 2007. Retrieved November 30,2008.
- “Ban on YouTube lifted after deal”. The Nation. August 31, 2007.
- Colley, Andrew (March 6, 2007). “States still hold out on YouTube”. Australian IT. Retrieved October 11, 2007.[dead link]
- Lococo, Edmond; Lee, Mark (October 17, 2010). “Youku Transcends YouTube as China Becomes Center of Internet”. Bloomberg News. Retrieved October 23, 2010.[dead link]
- Sommerville, Quentin (March 24, 2009). “China ‘blocks YouTube video site'”. BBC News. Retrieved March 24, 2009.
- “YouTube遭中國封鎖？”. Now News. October 19, 2007. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- “China Blocks YouTube”. PC World. October 18, 2007. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- “YouTube site ‘blocked’ in Morocco”. BBC News. May 29, 2007. RetrievedDecember 25, 2013.
- “YouTube again accessible via Maroc Telecom“. Reporters Without Borders. May 30, 2007. Retrieved May 30, 2007.[dead link]
- Rosen, Jeffrey (November 30, 2008). “Google’s Gatekeepers”. The New York Times. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
- “Turkey goes into battle with Google”. BBC News. July 2, 2010. Retrieved July 3,2010.
- “Turkey lifts two-year ban on YouTube”. BBC News. October 30, 2010. RetrievedOctober 31, 2010.
- Champion, Marc (November 2, 2010). “Turkey Reinstates YouTube Ban”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
- “Turkey report”, Freedom on the Net 2012, Freedom House, September 24, 2012.
- “Top Sites in Turkey”, Alexa. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- Kelley, Michael (March 27, 2014). “YouTube Blocked In Turkey Amid High-Level Intelligence Leak”. Business Insider. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- “Turkey moves to block YouTube access after ‘audio leak'”. BBC. March 27, 2014. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- Wagstaff, Keith (March 27, 2014). “YouTube Banned in Turkey”. NBC News. RetrievedMarch 27, 2014.
- “Pakistan blocks YouTube website”. BBC. February 24, 2008. Retrieved November 30,2008.
- “Pakistan lifts YouTube ban”. ABC News (Australia). AFP. February 26, 2008. Retrieved February 26, 2008.
- “Pakistan lifts the ban on YouTube”. BBC. February 26, 2008. Retrieved November 30,2008.
- “Pakistan web users get round YouTube ban”. Silicon Republic. Archived from the original on June 29, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- “Pakistan blocks access to YouTube in internet crackdown”. BBC News. May 20, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
- “YouTube ban lifted by Pakistan authorities”, Joanne McCabe, Metro (Associated Newspapers Limited, UK), May 27, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2012
- “Pakistan lifts ban on YouTube”, The Times of India, May 27, 2010
- Pakistan ban on YouTube stays even after one year The Economic Times, September 17, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
- “Turkmenistan: YouTube and LiveJournal are blocked”. Moscow: Ferghana News. December 25, 2009. Retrieved December 25, 2009.
- “Watchdog urges Libya to stop blocking websites”. Agence France-Presse. RetrievedFebruary 7, 2010.
- “Libya”, Freedom on the Net 2012, Freedom House, September 24, 2012
- “Afghanistan to unblock YouTube – Afghanistan Times”, December 1, 2012.
- “Afghanistan bans YouTube to block anti-Muslim film”, Miriam Arghandiwal, Reuters (Kabul), September 12, 2012.
- “YouTube blocked in Bangladesh over Prophet Mohamed video”, The Independent(AP), September 18, 2012.
- “YouTube blocked in Pakistan”, Hayley Tsukayama, Washington Post, September 17, 2012.
- “Pakistan, Bangladesh Block YouTube Amid Islam Film Protests”. Bloomberg. September 18, 2012. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
- “Russian court bans anti-Islam film”. The News. September 29, 2012.
- “‘Innocence of Muslims’: Mystery shrouds film’s California origins”. Los Angeles Times. September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
- “YouTube restricts video access over Libyan violence”. CNN. September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
- “YouTube will block videos from artists who don’t sign up for its paid streaming service”. The Verge. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- “YouTube subscription music licensing strikes wrong notes with indie labels”. The Guardian. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- “Talks with indie labels stall over YouTube music subscription service”. The Guardian. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- “YouTube to block indie labels who don’t sign up to new music service”. The Guardian. Retrieved June 17, 2014.